The Most Comprehensive Source of Stereology Information on the Web

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Stereology Information for the Biological Sciences

This site introduces both basic and advanced concepts of Stereology. The emphasis is on the use of stereology in biological research, though anyone interested in learning concepts of stereology will find something of interest. The application of stereological methods to biological studies permits researchers to effectively and efficiently gather unbiased, accurate data. This site is dedicated to helping researchers understand the principles of design-based stereology and its advantages over less sophisticated approaches in quantitative histology.

What is Stereology?

Design-based stereology is a set of methods to ensure rigorous quantitative analysis of the size, shape, and number of objects. When properly used, stereology plays an important role in validating and rejecting experimental hypotheses in biological research. It produces results that are unbiased, efficient, and more reliable than other ad hoc quantitative analyses. Unbiased stereology provides an important contribution to the advancement in biological research by improving the consistency and dependability of quantitative analytical results produced in the laboratory and reported in scientific publications.

An Introduction to Stereology Probes

The most modern unbiased stereology probes are used to quantify aspects of biological tissue in a reproducible and efficient manner. These stereological probes are appropriate for many fields of basic and applied biological and medical research. These probes should always be used in conjunction with systematic random sampling.

OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR to estimate NUMBER of cells

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Estimate the size of cell populations with the optical fractionator in thick tissue sections. In this probe, sub-volumes are sampled and then are extrapolated to arrive at an estimate of the entire cell population. A virtual space called an optical disector is used in thick sections that can be oriented anyway you like. Disector counting rules are followed to avoid overestimating, and an oil objective lens is employed for imaging, since fine z-resolution is needed to find the leading edge of the cell and to have enough focal planes to determine if it is in the disector. Note: avoid counting pieces of cells when you really want to count whole cells.    OPTICAL FRACTIONATOR

 

NUCLEATOR to estimate VOLUME of cells

Estimate individual cell volumnucleator-2es with the nucleator. A point in the cell is identified, then one to four rays are marked and their mean length is used in the formula for the volume of a sphere, generating an estimate of the cell volume. The volume estimate is number-weighted; the sampling is done with a disector in thick sections so that it is not more likely to sample larger cells than smaller cells. It is important to use a method to select cells without bias by picking them in a manner that does not favor any position of the cell in space; you won’t overestimate by sampling too many larger cross-sections or underestimate by sampling too many smaller cross-sections.    NUCLEATOR

 

CAVALIERI POINT-COUNTING to estimate VOLUME of regions

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This probe is versatile in that it can be used on thin optical or physical sections that are oriented according to the preference of the researcher. A fraction of the tissue is marked with points over the region(s) of interest, and an extrapolation is carried out to arrive at the estimate. Unbiased estimates of regional volume are easy to obtain efficiently using Cavalieri point-counting.     CAVALIERI/POINT-COUNTING

 

SPACEBALLS to estimate LENGTH of fibers and vessels

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Estimate length of biological filaments such as axons or blood vessels without facing the herculean task of tracing them all. Instead the intersections of the filaments with a virtual sphere are marked and converted to a length estimate. Thick sections may be oriented as the researcher prefers. This probe is implemented along with the fractionator method; a volume-fraction is sampled and extrapolated using the reciprocal of the volume fraction to arrive at the estimate of length.    SPACEBALLS

 

ISOTROPIC FAKIR to estimate SURFACE of membranes

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To estimate surface area, a triplet of line segments that has the property of being isotropic in space is used to probe in thick sections. Intersections of the triplet with the surface are counted and a formula is used to arrive at an estimate of the surface area; the more intersections recorded the greater the surface. Like the other regional probes on this page, thick, preferentially oriented sections are used and the fractionator method works to make an extrapolation based on the fraction of volume that was sampled.     ISOTROPIC FAKIR

more probes including solutions for thin tissue sections

 

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Recent Noteworthy Stereology Publications

Published papers using unbiased stereology; last updated on 12.06.2017.

starindicates that the researchers did a good job reporting stereological parameters. To see what parameters should be reported click here.

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglia Activation Promotes the Survival of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro

Long-term Changes in the Nigrostriatal Pathway in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Quantitative analysis of intra- and inter-individual variability of human beta-cell mass

Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Does Not Modify the Functional Deficits or Axonopathy Induced by Nigrostriatal α-Synuclein Overexpression

starPhosphorylated exogenous alpha-synuclein fibrils exacerbate pathology and induce neuronal dysfunction in mice

Rat Model of Brain Injury to Occupants of Vehicles Targeted by Land Mines: Mitigation by Elastomeric Frame Designs

Increased glia density in the caudate nucleus in williams syndrome: Implications for frontostriatal dysfunction in autism

Assessment of the acquisition of executive function during the transition from adolescence to adulthood in male and female mice

Comparative morphology of gigantopyramidal neurons in primary motor cortex across mammals

Effects of spermine and the passive avoidance learning (PAL) following cerebral ischemia in chicks: Association with neuroprotection of pyramidal cells

A Parkinson’s disease gene, DJ-1, repairs brain injury through Sox9 stabilization and astrogliosis

starLack of chronic neuroinflammation in the absence of focal hemorrhage in a rat model of low-energy blast-induced TBI

starVon Economo neurons of the anterior cingulate across the lifespan and in Alzheimer’s disease

starHistopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Gingko biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation

Inhibiting the microglia activation improves the spatial memory and adult neurogenesis in rat hippocampus during 48 h of sleep deprivation

starChild abuse associates with an imbalance of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells in ventromedial prefrontal white matter

Antioxidant action of grape seed polyphenols and aerobic exercise in improving neuronal number in the hippocampus is associated with decrease in lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in adult and middle-aged rats

Altered neuro-inflammatory gene expression in hippocampus in major depressive disorder

The Kv7/KCNQ channel blocker XE991 protects nigral dopaminergic neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson’s disease

Mutant huntingtin protein expression and blood-spinal cord barrier dysfunction in Huntington’s disease

TorsinA dysfunction causes persistent neuronal nuclear pore defects

Mitochondrial DNA double-strand breaks in oligodendrocytes cause demyelination, axonal injury and CNS inflammation

Inflammation, oxidative stress, and glial cell activation characterize stellate ganglia from humans with electrical storm

Altered mGluR5 binding potential and glutamine concentration in the 6-OHDA rat model of acute Parkinson’s disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia

 

Continue reading “Recent Noteworthy Stereology publications”

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What’s New in Stereology.info

Read recently published papers using unbiased stereology updated on 11.28.2017

Watch the latest webinar on Using the Optical Fractionator Probe to Estimate Number of Cells with Dr. Dan Peruzzi
Learn how to count cells in an unbiased manner with the Optical Fractionator probe in Stereo Investigator. Added on: 04.24.2017

New page: Destructive Index added on 05.13.2016

New page: Pulmonary added on 05.13.2016

New page: Placenta added on 05.11.2016

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