Further Reading

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Books dedicated to design-based stereology

Bertram J, Nurcombe V, Wreford N. (1999) Stereological Methods for Biology. London: International Thomson Publishing Services.

Elias H, Hyde DM. (1983) Guide to Practical Stereology. Basel: Karger.

Evans S, Janson A, Nyengaard J (2004) Quantitative Methods in Neuroscience: A Neuroanatomical Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard CV, Reed MG. (2010) Unbiased Stereology, second edition. QTP Publications, Coleraine, U.K.

Glaser J, Greene G, Hendricks S. (2007) Stereology for Biological Research. Williston: MBF Press.

West M.J. (2012) ‘Basic Stereology for Biologists and Neuroscientists’ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor.

Reith A, Mayhew TM. (1988) Stereology and Morphometry In Electron Microscopy: Some Problems & Their Solutions. London: CRC Press.

Russ JC, Dehoff RT. (2000) Practical Stereology (2nd ed). New York: Kluver Academic / Plenum Publishers.

Vedel Jensen EB. (1998) Local Stereology. London: World Scientific Publishing Company.

Weibel ER. (1979) Stereological Methods, Vol. 1. Practical Methods for Biological Morphometry. London: Academic Press.

Weibel, ER. (1980) Stereological Methods, Vol. 2. Theoretical Foundations. London: Academic Press.


Reviews dedicated to design-based stereology

Coggeshall RE. (1999) Assaying structural changes after nerve damage, an essay on quantitative morphology. Pain Suppl 6, s21-s25.

Coggeshall RE, Lekan HA. Methods for determining numbers of cells and synapses: a case for more uniform standards of review. J Comp Neurol 64, 6-15

Cruz-Orive LM, Weibel ER. (1990) Recent stereological methods for cell biology: a brief survey. Am J Physiol 258, L148-L156.

Dorph-Petersen KA, Nyengaard JR, Gundersen HJ. (2001) Tissue shrinkage and unbiased stereological estimation of particle number and size. J Microsc 204, 232-246.

Geuna S. (2000) Appreciating the difference between design-based and model-based sampling strategies in quantitative morphology of the nervous system. J Comp Neurol 427, 333-339.

Glaser J, Glaser EM. (2000) Stereology, morphometry, and mapping: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. J Chem Neuroanat 20, 115-126.

Gundersen HJ. (1992) Stereology: the fast lane between neuroanatomy and brain function—or still only a tightrope? Acta Neurol Scand Suppl137, 8-13.

Gundersen, H.J. (1986). Stereology of arbitrary particles. A review of unbiased number and size estimators and the presentation of some new ones, in memory of William R. Thompson. J Microsc. Jul;143(Pt 1), 3-45.

Gundersen HJG, Bagger P, Bendtsen TF, Evans SM, Korbo L, Marcussen N, et al. (1988) The new stereological tools: Disector, fractionator, nucleator and point sampled intercepts and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 96, 857-881.

Gundersen HJ, Bendtsen TF, Korbo L, Marcussen N, Moller A, Nielsen K, et al. (1988) Some new, simple and efficient stereological methods and their use in pathological research and diagnosis. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 96, 379-394.

Howell K, Hopkins N, Mcloughlin P. (2002) Combined confocal microscopy and stereology: a highly efficient and unbiased approach to quantitative structural measurement in tissues. Exp Physiol 87, 747-756.

Hyman BT, Gomez-Isla T, Irizarry MC. Stereology: a practical primer for neuropathology. (1998) J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57, 305-310.

Kreczmanski P, Schmidt-Kastner R, Heinsen H, Steinbusch HWM, Hof PR, Schmitz C. (2005) Stereological studies of capillary length density in the frontal cortex of schizophrenics. Acta Neuropathologica 109, 510-518.

Kubinova L, Janacek J, Karen P, Radochova B, Difato F, Krekule I. (2004) Confocal stereology and image analysis: methods for estimating geometrical characteristics of cells and tissues from three-dimensional confocal images. Physiol Res 53 Suppl 1, S47-S5

Mayhew TM. (1992) A review of recent advances in stereology for quantifying neural structure. J Neurocytol 21, 313-328.

Mayhew TM. (1996) How to count synapses unbiasedly and efficiently at the ultrastructural level: proposal for a standard sampling and counting protocol. J Neurocytol 25, 793-804.

Mayhew TM. (2006) Stereology and the placenta: where’s the point?—a review. Placenta 27 Suppl A, S17-S25.

Mayhew TM, Gundersen HJ. (1996) ‘If you assume, you can make an ass out of u and me’: a decade of the disector for stereological counting of particles in 3D space. J Anat 188, 1-15.

Oorschot DE, Peterson DA, Jones DG. (1991) Neurite growth from, and neuronal survival within, cultured explants of the nervous system: a critical review of morphometric and stereological methods, and suggestions for the future. Prog Neurobiol 37, 525-546.

Peterson DA. (1999) Quantitative histology using confocal microscopy: implementation of unbiased stereology procedures. Methods 18, 493-507.

Roberts N, Puddephat MJ, McNulty V. (2000) The benefit of stereology for quantitative radiology. Br J Radiol 73, 679-697.

Royet JP. (1991) Stereology: a method for analyzing images. Prog Neurobiol 37, 433-474.

Schmitz ,C., Hof, P.R. (2000). Recommendations for straightforward and rigorous methods of counting neurons based on a computer simulation approach. J Chem Neuroanat. Oct;20(1), 93-114.

Schmitz C, Grolms N, Hof PR, Boehringer R, Glaser J, and Korr H. (2002) Altered Spatial Arrangeent of Layer V Pyramidal Cells in the Mouse Brain following Prenatal Lowdose X-Irradiation. A Stereological Study using a Novel Three-dimensional Analysis
Method to Estimate the Nearest Neighbor Distance Distribution of Cells in Thick Sections. Cereb Cortex 12, 954-960.

Schmitz C., Hof P.R. (2005). Design-based stereology in neuroscience. Neuroscience.130(4), 813-31. Review.

Tandrup T. (2004) Unbiased estimates of number and size of rat dorsal root ganglion cells in studies of structure and cell survival. J Neurocytol 33, 173-192.

Von Bartheld C. (2002) Counting particles in tissue sections: choices of methods and importance of calibration to minimize biases. Histol Histopathol 17, 639-648.

West MJ. (1993) New stereological methods for counting neurons. Neurobiol Aging 14, 275-285.

West MJ. (2001) Stereological methods for estimating the total number of neurons and synapses: issues of precision and bias. Trends Neurosci 22, 51-61.

West MJ. (2001) Design based stereological methods for estimating the total number of objects in histological material. Folia Morphol (Warsz) 60, 11-19.

West NJ. (2002) Design-based stereological methods for counting neurons. Prog Brain Res 135, 43-51.



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developers of Stereo Investigator, the most cited stereology system